Claire Chenu, PhD Presenting at Nobel Conference 54

Claire Chenu, PhD Presenting at Nobel Conference 54

October 12, 2019 0 By Ewald Bahringer


>>THANK YOU.
I GET THE HONOR OF INTRODUCING DR. CLAIRE CHENU.
DR. CHENU AS PROFESSOR AT AGRO PARIS TECH, THE PARIS INSTITUTE
OF TECHNOLOGY FOR LIFE, FOOD, AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES.
AND IS A RESEARCHER AT THE JOINT RESEARCH UNIT FOR FUNCTIONAL
ECOLOGY AND ECO TOXICOLOGY OFFING A GRA SYSTEMS.
DR. CHENU’S WORK ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER, CARBON STORAGE IN SOILS,
AND THE INTERACTION OF SOIL STRUCTURE AND AGRICULTURAL
PRACTICES LED TO HER SELECTION AS THE SPECIAL AMBASSADOR FOR
THE UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF SOILS IN THE YEAR 2015.
SPONSOR BY THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE
U.N. IN THIS ROLE, SHE TRAVELED THE
WORLD TEACHING ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF SOILS TO FOOD,
FIBER, WATER, AND OTHER HUMAN NEEDS, TO STAKEHOLDERS, DECISION
MAKERS, AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC. TODAY, DR. CHENU CONTINUES BOTH
HER SOIL RESEARCH, ADDING TO A LONG PUBLICATION LIST.
SHE HAS MORE THAN 100 PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS SUCH AS
BIOGEO CHEMISTRY, THE EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE,
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND SHE ALSO
CONTINUES HER WORK IN SCIENCE POLICY BY SERVING AS THE HEAD OF
THE SCIENTIFIC COUNCIL OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE FRENCH
MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT ON SOILS AND IS A MEMBER OF THE
STEERING COMMITTEE OF THE SWISS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ON
SOILS AND SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE AND SHE’S ALSO A PROFESSOR AND
TEACHES HER OWN CLASSES. I’D LIKE TO INTRODUCE DR. CLAIRE
CHENU. [ APPLAUSE ]
>>THANK YOU. THANK YOU FOR THIS INTRODUCTION
AND GOOD AFTERNOON. GOOD AFTERNOON.
IT’S A GREAT HONOR TO BE HERE AND IT’S A PLEASURE AT THIS
AMAZING EVENT. SO YES,
THANK YOU FOR THIS INTRODUCTION AND GOOD AFTERNOON.
GOOD I COME FROM FRANCE AND ACTUALLY, YOU CAN SEE I WORK IN
A SMALL VILLAGE IN THE FAR SUBURBS OF PARIS AND VERSAILLES
WHERE I LIVE. DIFFERENT SETTINGS, DIFFERENT
ENVIRONMENTS, MUCH SMALLER COUNTRY.
WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THIS AFTERNOON IS ORGANIC
MATTER AS A SOLUTION TO GLOBAL CHALLENGES.
AND I HOPE TO INTRODUCE YOU TO THESE TOPICS TO MAKE YOU
UNDERSTAND BETTER AND MAYBE CONVINCE YOU TO GO FORWARD.
SO GLOBAL CHALLENGES. GLOBAL CHALLENGES, THE MORE
IMPORTANT ONE IS PROBABLY FOOD SECURITY.
YOU WILL KNOW ABOUT IT. I’M NOT GOING INTO DETAIL WITH
ALL THE FLOEBL CHALLENGES, BUT — GLOBAL CHALLENGES, BUT IT’S
INTERLINKED WITH WATER SECURITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY, HEALTH
ISSUES, ENERGY SUSTAINABILITY AND AT THE CROSSROADS AND THE
NEXUS OF ALL THESE CHALLENGES IS SOIL SECURITY.
WHY SOIL SECURITY? BECAUSE SOILS ARE — IT WAS SAID
THIS MORNING BY DAVID MONTGOMERY, THE EQUIVALENT OF
THE SECURITY PANEL ON SOIL ESTIMATES THAT ONE-THIRD OF
WORLD SOILS ARE IN MODERATE TO SEVERE DEGRADATION STATE, SO
SOILS ARE REALLY TROUBLED. THIS IS A PROBABLE BECAUSE SOILS
PROVIDE — PROBLEM BECAUSE SOILS PROVIDE MANY ECOSYSTEM SERVICES.
THE FIRST ONE PROBABLY THAT SOILS ARE WHERE FOOD BEGINS,
WHICH RELATES TO FOOD SECURITY, BUT SOILS ARE ALSO THE PLACE OF
A HUGE BIODIVERSITY. THEY ALSO ALLOW TO RECYCLE OUR
WASTE. THEY INTEGRATE, THEY STORE AND
CONVEY THE WATER, SO PLAY A LARGE ROLE IN THE WATER CYCLE.
THEY CONTROL EROSION. WE HAVE HEARD ABOUT EROSION THIS
MORNING. THEY CONTROL OR NOT EROSION.
THEY CAN EMIT GREENHOUSE GASES, THEY CAN ALSO STORE CARBON.
THEY ARE MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE CLIMATE ISSUES.
I WILL TALK MORE ABOUT IT LATER ON.
AND THEY ARE PART OF OUR LANDSAKE, OUR CULTURE AND ALSO
THE REMNANTS OF OUR COMMUNITIES ARE HELD AND PRESERVED.
AND FOR ALL THESE ECOSYSTEMS, NEARLY ALL OF THESE ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES, ORGANIC MATTER AS PART OF SOILS PLAYS AN IMPORTANT
ROLE. SO WHAT IS ORGANIC MATTER?
THE QUESTION WAS RAISED THIS MORNING.
I SAY IT’S EVERYTHING THAT IS LEADING OR HAS BEEN LEADING.
SOIL ORGANIC MATTER COMES FROM THE DECOMPOSITION OF ALL THE
BIOMASS IN FOODS TO SOIL, SO IT’S MAINLY MADE OF CARBON AND
THAT’S WHY WE OFTEN TALK FROM SOIL ORGANIC MATTERS, IT’S
DIFFERENT. THERE’S ALSO NITROGEN,
PHOSPHORUS AND OXYGEN, ETCETERA. BUT IT COMES FROM THE
DECOMPOSITION AND THESE DECOMPOSITION RELEASES CO 2’S,
BUT ALSO IN SOME CASES, IN SOME SITUATIONS, OTHER GREENHOUSE
GASES, N2O AND THE DECOMPOSITION ALSO RELEASES NITROGEN AND
PHOSPHORUS, RELEASES NUTRIENTS. AND ORGANIC MATTER IS ALL THESE
PROCESS, SO YOU START FROM PLANTS, PLANT PIECES, THAT ARE
PROCESSED BY ORGANIC — BY MICROORGANISMS AND WHAT WE OFTEN
CALLED HUMUS IS BASICALLY MICROBES REMNANTS.
REMNANTS OF DEAD MICROBES AND THEIR PRODUCTION, THEIR
EXUDATES. SO ORGANIC MATTER AS MIXTURE OF
MANY DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOLECULES, DEBRIS, VERY SMALL
PIECES, AND MORE OR LESS LINKED TO MINERALS.
AND THESE DIFFERENT COMPOUNDS CONTRIBUTES TO THE SOIL
ECOSYSTEM SERVICES, SO SOIL AGAIN PROVIDES ECOSYSTEM SERVICES.
THE MOST IMPORTANT PROBABLY CONTRIBUTION IS SOIL FERTILITY.
IT HELPS TO HAVE GOOD SOIL STRUCTURE, WATER INFILTRATION
AND RETENTION, GOOD AERATION FOR THE ROOTS, SO ALL THESE HELPS
WITH PENETRATION, ROOTS BUT ALSO PROVISION OF NUTRIENTS WII THE
COMPOSITION OR RETENTION OF THE CHARGES AND ALSO ALLOWS FOR THE
PRESENCE OF THE BENEFICIAL ORGANISMS SUCH AS WE TALKED
ABOUT MICRO RHIZAL THIS MORNING. TWO EXAMPLES OF DATA ON SOIL
FERTILITY. IT’S NOT — ALTHOUGH IT’S VERY
WELL KNOWN THAT ORGANIC MATTER CONTRIBUTES TO ALL THESE
ELEMENTARY PROPERTIES THAT ARE PART OF SOIL FERTILITY, RELATING
ORGANIC MATTER TO YIELDS, ORGANIC MATTER TO YIELDS IS NOT
THAT OBVIOUS. ONE EXAMPLE I TOOK FROM A PAPER
IN CHINA, TWO DIFFERENT AREAS IN CHINA, A TOTAL OF 600 STUDIES,
SAW BIG — YOU CAN SEE HERE YIELDS EXPRESSED AS A FUNCTION
OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT, SO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IS THE
AMOUNT OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON YOU HAVE IN A GIVEN LAYER OF
SOIL AND YOU SEE WHEN YOU HAVE VERY LOW CONTENTS AND STOCKS OF
ORGANIC MATTER, DEFINITELY WE SAW ORGANIC MATTER, ORGANIC
CARBON CONTENT IS LIMITING THE YIELD.
IT INCREASES AS YOU INCREASE THE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON.
AND OTHER ELEMENTS, OTHER FACTORS
ARE LIMITING THE YIELDS. MAYBE THE VARIETY OF CLIMATE.
I PUT ASIDE ANOTHER GRAPH FROM THE SAME PAPER AND I THINK IT’S
VERY IMPORTANT. THIS IS YIELD VARIATION.
WHAT THEY DID IN THIS STUDIES THAT ACCUMULATED FOR 600
DIFFERENT STUDIES AND THEY EXPRESSED YIELD VARIABILITY OVER
20 YEARS BY COMPARING YIELD IN DIFFERENT YEARS AND AGAIN
EXPRESSED AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCK AND YOU SEE
THE YIELD DECREASES AS WE SAW ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS INCREASE.
SO THE RESISTANCE OF SOIL AND CROPS TO CLIMATIC EVENTS,
EXTREME EVENTS. HENCE WE SAY THAT SOIL ORGANIC
CARBON CONTRIBUTES TO FOOD SECURITY AND TO ADAPTATION TO
CLIMATE CHANGE. AND THIS IS A PAPER I WAS — I
HAPPENED TO BE READING TWO WEEKS AGO, AND IT COMES FROM THIS AREA
OF THE U.S. SOIL WATERING HOLDING CAPACITY MITIGATES
VOLATILITY IN U.S. — IT’S BASED ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER.
ANOTHER ISSUE, CLIMATE. THESE MIGHT BE COMPLICATED.
IT IS NOT THAT COMPLICATED. WHAT YOU HAVE HERE ARE SOME OF
THE MAIN CARBON STOCKS OF OUR PLANET.
YOU HAVE THE ATMOSPHERE, OF COURSE.
YOU HAVE THE VEGETATION, AND YOU HAVE SOILS.
YOU CAN SEE THAT SOIL CONTAINS THREE TIMES MORE CARBON THAN THE
ATMOSPHERE. WE HAVE A SMALL POOL AND A
LARGER POOL, AND WHAT IS REPRESENTED ALSO ARE THE FLUXES,
THE ANNUAL FLUXES. THESE TONS OF CARBON, BIG BIG NUMBERS.
IN GRAY, YOU HAVE THE PRODUCTION THAT OCCURS EVERY YEAR AND IN
RED AND GREEN, YOU HAVE THE EQUILIBRIUM.
THE EQUILIBRIUM WE ARE RESPONSIBLE OF, EMISSION OF
CARBON FROM FOSSIL CARBON, DIFFERENT STATIONS, AND FIRES
AND THE CONTINENTAL SURFACES, THE OCEAN TAKE UP SOME OF THAT
EXCESS CARBON THAT GOES TO THE ATMOSPHERE.
YET, IT’S IN EQUILIBRIUM AND YOU KNOW, OF COURSE, THAT THE
CONCENTRATION OF CARBON, OF CO2 OF OUR ATMOSPHERE IS
CONTINUOUSLY INCREASING. NOW, IF YOU COMPARE NUMBERS,
JUST MAKE A VERY BACK-OF-THE ENVELOPE COMPARISON OF NUMBERS,
YOU CAN SEE THAT AN INCREASE OF THE TOTAL CARBON STOCKS OF THE
PLANET WOULD .4%, VERY, VERY SMALL INCREASE, COULD COMPENSATE ALL CARBON
CONSUMPTION, SO WHAT IS BEHIND AND WHAT IS BEHIND WHAT IS NAMED
— I WILL TALK ABOUT IT AT THE END OF MY TALK, THAT MANAGING A
VERY SMALL INCREASE OF CARBON STOCKS WORLDWIDE WOULD HAVE A
MAJOR EFFECT ON SOIL CLIMATE, ON WORLD CLIMATE.
SO SOIL ORGANIC MATTER, SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IS IMPORTANT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION.
AND WHAT HAPPENED, WHICH WAS OBVIOUS DURING THE CONFERENCE 21
IN PARIS IN 2015, YOU KNOW THAT ALL COUNTRIES COMMITTED TO DO
SOME CHANGES AND SOME OF THE CHANGES, ABOUT 25% OF THE
REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS WERE RELATED TO THE LAND SECTORS,
AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY. BUT SUMMING UP ALL THE EFFORTS,
THE COUNTRIES PLANNED TO DO, IS NOT — IT’S FAR FROM BEING
ENOUGH TO TRAJECTORY — HERE YOU HAVE THE TRAJECTORY OF BUSINESS
AS USUAL AND HERE YOU HAVE THE TRAJECTORY WE WOULD LIKE TO HAVE
TO MITIGATE THE PLANET TEMPERATURE.
IT IS DETAILED IN THESE GRAPHS HERE, AND HERE IN YELLOW, YOU
HAVE THE TRAJECTORY HERE WITH WHAT WAS NEGOTIATED DURING THE
PARIS AGREEMENTS. SO YOU SEE THAT WE ARE FAR FROM
ABATEMENT. SO THERE’S A NEED, IT’S NOT
ENOUGH TO PREVENT TEMPERATURE RISE AND THERE’S A NEED TO FIND
ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES. TECHNOLOGIES IS NOT HIGH
TECHNOLOGIES, CAN BE WHAT IS CALLED NEGATIVE EMISSION
TECHNOLOGIES. FOR EXAMPLE, STORING CARBON IN
SOILS. SO STORING CARBON IN SOILTION.
WE HAVE TO DO IT AND IT WAS ALSO DISCUSSED, PRESENTED THIS
MORNING BY DAVID MONTGOMERY. SO THE QUESTIONS, I TRIED TO
INTRODUCE, SOME SERVICES, SECURITY, CLIMATE ADAPTATION,
CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION, FOUR GOOD REASONS TO DO IT.
I HAVE TRIED TO PRESENT TO YOU THE REASONS TO DO IT, THE WHYS.
NOW I WILL TALK ABOUT HOW TO DO IT AND THEN WE WILL SEE WHERE TO
DO IT, SOME BARRIERS AND HOW TO GO FORWARD.
I WANT TO TAKE YOU THROUGH THIS JOURNEY WITH ME.
SO HOW TO DO IT? LET’S GO BACK TO THE BASICS OF
SOIL ORGANIC MATTER. SO AGAIN, I’M USING THE SAME
GRAPH I WILL BE USING THROUGH MY TALK.
THE CARBON CYCLE AT THE LOCAL FIELD, THE LOCAL SCALE IS
PRIMARY PRODUCTION, YOU CAN LOSE CARBON THROUGH FIRES, YOU HAVE
RAIN COMING BACK AND YOU HAVE ORGANIC MATTERS, THE COMPOST,
ALL THE ORGANIC MATTER. YOU HAVE THE ORGANIC MATTER
RELATED TO CATTLE, TO ANIMALS, AND ALL THESE DRIVES THE INPUTS
HERE TO THE ORGANIC MATTER POOL, SO THE SOIL CARBON POOL.
AND THEN WE HAVE OUTPUTS. OUTPUTS BY LEACHING WITH THE
RAIN ARE VERY SMALL IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS.
MAIN OUTPUTS ARE BY DEGRADATION AND MINERALIZATION AND EROSION.
THIS ALSO WAS PRESENTED THIS MORNING.
SO INCREASING STOCKS IS EITHER INCREASING INPUT OR DECREASING
OUTPUTS, OR BOTH. AND THIS CAN BE DONE THROUGH
DIFFERENT WAYS. NOW ANOTHER THING IMPORTANT TO
UNDERSTAND HOW TO MANAGE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IS TO EVALUATE
THE SOIL — SOME COMPOUNDS ARE GOING TO STAY FOR A FEW WEEKS
AND FEW DAYS ON THESE SOILS AND OTHERS ARE GOING TO STAY FOR
DECADES AND A VART MAJORITY ARE GOING TO — VAST MAJORITY ARE
GOING TO STAY TO DECADES, SEARCHES, MILLENNIA.
AND WHAT IS MORE IMPORTANT IS THE STABLE FOR SOIL HEALTH IF
YOU WANT TO SUSTAIN BIODIVERSITY, YOU WANT TO
PROVIDE NUTRIENTS, YOU WANT THE ORGANIC MATTER TO TURN OVER.
SO WE WANT ALL OF THAT. AND WHAT CONTROLS THESE
RESIDENCE TIME OF ORGANIC CARBON IN SOILS IS A VARIETY OF
FACTORS. NATURE OF THE ORGANIC MATTER,
DECOMPOSING, THE TEMPERATURE OF THE WAURKT THE AERATION, THE
NUTRIENTS, THE SOIL pH TYPE. THAT EXPLAINS THE VARIABLITY OF
STOCK ALL OVER THE WORLD, SOIL TYPE, ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT.
INCREASING INPUTS, DECREASING OUTPUTS.
THE FIRST WAY TO DO IT COULD BE TO CHANGE LAND USE.
INDEED, WHEN YOU LOOK AT SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS, WHAT IS
REPRESENTED HERE AND HERE IN THE TWO FIGURES, AS A FUNCTION OF
LAND USE, YOU SEE BIG CHANGES. I TOOK TWO XAMPS, ONE IN RWANDA,
ONE IN FRANCE, AND BOTH SHOW THE SAME AND IT WOULD BE THE SAME
FOR THE U.S. IT’S THAT CROPS AND THE SOIL CROPPING ALWAYS
HAVE MUCH SMALLER SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS FOR A GIVEN DEPTH
THAN SOILS IN THE PERMANENT GRASSLAND OR FOREST.
SO THE SOLUTION MAY BE DEFORESTATION AND BUT EVERYTHING
IN GRASSLAND, BUT THE ISSUE OF LIVELIHOOD OF FARMERS AND FOOD
SECURITY. SO IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO
PRESERVE THE STOCKS THAT ARE IN GRASSLAND AND TO PRESERVE THE
STOCKS THAT ARE IN UNDER FOREST, BUT STILL HOW TO MANAGE NOW THE
STOCKS UNDER AGRICULTURAL LAND AND THE CULTIVATED CROPLAND.
I’LL GO BACK AGAIN, I WILL USE MY CYCLE AT THE LOCAL LEVEL.
THERE ARE DIFFERENT LEVELS THAT CAN BE USED.
FOR EXAMPLE, INCREASING PRIMARY PRODUCTION.
INCREASING PHOTOSYNTHESIS. WELL, WE HAVE TO — WE HAD
EXAMPLES THIS MORNING, COVER CROPS.
COVER CROPS BETWEEN TWO SUCCEEDING CROPS THAT BRING A
LOT OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES. ALSO GRASS, GRASSLAND BETWEEN
ORCHARDS, LAYERS OF TREES AND BETWEEN VINE TREES HERE FOR
EXAMPLE IN SOUTHWEST FRANCE. TEMPORARY GRASSLAND MAKES ALSO A
LOT OF PRIMARY PRODUCTION. AGRO FORESTRY, YOU HAVE ALL THE
BIOMASS PRODUCED BY THE TREES IN ADDITION TO THAT OF THE CROPS.
HERE IT IS IN TOGO, FOR EXAMPLE. THE SECOND LEVER IS TO BAN FIRES
AND THIS IS, OF COURSE, FORBIDDEN IN MANY COUNTRIES
BECAUSE THIS IS A NET LOSS OF CARBON.
ALTHOUGH, OF COURSE, IT WAS DONE BECAUSE IT BRINGS BENEFITS IN TERMS OF DISEASES.
A THIRD LEVER IS TO TRY TO REINCORPORATE THE SOILS, MORE OF
THE RESIDUES AND EXPORT LESS, SO RETURN THE ORGANIC MATTER AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.
ANOTHER LEVER IS TO IMPORT EXOGENOUS ORGANIC MATTER THAT
COMES FROM OUTSIDE OF THE PLOT. FOR EXAMPLE, MANURE OR COMPOST
FROM THE CITIES. THIS IS A COMPOST PILE.
ANOTHER LEVER IS MANAGING THE CATTLE.
FOR EXAMPLE, MANAGING THE MOWING FREQUENCY, THE GRAZING
FREQUENCY, THE WAYS THE ANIMALS OCCUPY THE LAND AVAILABLE.
ALL THESE CHANGES THE INPUTS TO SOIL.
NOW, TRY TO MANAGE OUTPUTS, TO REDUCE OUTPUTS.
REDUCE EROSION IS IMPORTANT. THIS CAN BE DONE THROUGH — WE
ALSO HAD EXAMPLES THIS MORNING COVERING THE SOILS WITH
CONSERVING AGRICULTURE AND ALSO WITH AGRO FORESTRY AND HEDGES
LIKE HERE IN SOUTH ASIA.
AND TRY TO REDUCE BIODEGRADATION AND MINERALIZATION.
THIS IS WHAT IS INTENDED FOR AND WHAT HAPPENS SO FAR — TO SOME
EXTENT IN NO-TILL SYSTEMS WHERE SOIL IS NOT DISTURBED
FREQUENTLY. SO YOU CAN SEE DIFFERENT LEVERS.
THEY HAVE DIFFERENT EFFICIENCIES IN TERMS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON,
AND I AM NOT SHOW YOU NUMBERS, BUT THERE ARE MANY COMPARISONS
THAT ARE UNDERTAKEN IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE WORLD AND THESE ARE
IMPORTANT TO HAVE QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES OF THE
REASONS — FROM THIS SIDE OF THE STORY, REASONS TO CHOOSE EITHER
ONE OF THE LEVERS. NOW, I WOULD LIKE TO FOCUS ON
TWO EXAMPLES TO BRING RESEARCH RESULTS.
NO-TILLAGE. NO-TILLAGE.
WELL, THE ABILITY TO INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS UNDER
NO-TILLAGE HAS BEEN RECENTLY REEVALUATED BY A META ANALYSIS.
THAT IS LIKE THE EXAMPLE IF CHINA, WHEN YOU GATHER THE
RESULTS OF MANY, MANY DIFFERENT STUDIES AND YOU TREAT IT LIKE IT
WAS YOUR EXPERIMENT SPP SO YOU CALCULATE A MEAN, CALCULATE A
VARIATION, AND IT IS VERY POWERFUL.
WHAT HAS BEEN SHOWN AND THIS IS ONE EXAMPLE OF THE RECENT META
ANALYSIS, IS THAT WHAT DO YOU HAVE HERE IS YOU HAVE DEPTH HERE
AND THIS IS THE DIFFERENCE IN SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS TO
THETHE DEPTHS BETWEEN NO-TILLAGE, MINUS HIGH INTENSITY
TILLAGE, FULL INVERSION TILLAGE, DIVIDED BY THE ORGANIC CARBON
STOCKS UNDER HIGH INTENSITY TILLAGE AND YOU SEE THAT THERE’S
AN ADDITIONAL STORAGE OF CARBON IN THE UPPER LAYERS, BUT NOT IN
THE DEEPER LAYERS OF SOIL. SO WHAT HAS BEEN FOUND,
ACTUALLY, IN THESE DIFFERENT PLACES, THESE DIFFERENT META
ANALYSES IS THAT NO TILLAGE ALLOWS TO STORE MUCH LESS
ADDITIONAL CARBON THAT WE ORIGINALLY THOUGHT.
A BIS DISAPPOINTING. THAT THESE ADDITIONAL STORAGE IS
VERY SUPERFICIAL, WHICH IS NOT INTERESTING IN TERMS OF CLIMATE
TRANSMIT GATION. IT IS STILL VERY INTERESTING IN
TERMS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION.
YOU CHANGE THE WATER RETENTION PROPERTIES.
IT IS EXTREMELY INTERESTING IN TERMS OF MITIGATING EROSION.
YOU ENHANCE THE STABILITY OF SOIL STRUCTURE.
THE SOIL STRUCTURE OF THE SURFACE LAYER IS BETTER ABLE TO
WITHSTAND RAIN EVENTS. AND ALSO, AN INTERESTING RESULT
IS THAT IT’S HIGHLY VARIABLE AMONG THE STUDIES THAT HAVE BEEN
PERFORMED AND TO BE HONEST, WE ARE NOT ABLE YET TO EXPLAIN WHY.
ALL THE CORRELATIONS THE STUDIES MAKE, WE CANNOT EXPLAIN BY
CLIMATE, WE CANNOT EXPLAIN BY SOIL, WE CANNOT EXPLAIN BY
PLMENT. THIS IS A QUESTION FOR THE — BY
MANAGEMENT. THIS IS A QUESTION FOR THE
SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND ONE THING I WANT TO ADD, HERE I’M
TALKING ABOUT NO-TILLAGE. I’M NOT TALKING ABOUT
CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE. IT WAS VERY WELL EXPLAINED THIS
MORNING. CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE HAS
THREE PILLARS. INCREASING THE DIVERSITY OF THE
ROTATION, REDUCING TILLAGE, COVERING THE SOIL ALL YEAR LONG WITH COVER CROPS.
IT’S DIFFERENT WHEN YOU COMPARE CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS
WITH MORE CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS. THEN YOU HAVE SOMETIMES A VERY
LARGE RELATIVE INCREASES IN SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS.
OKAY, BUT THEN THESE RESULTS, THAT TILLAGE IS NOT THAT
IMPORTANT IN REDUCING THE MINERALIZATION RATES OF SOIL
ORGANIC MATTER. SO I CANNOT GIVE YOU THE ANSWER
TODAY, BUT WE HAVE TO REVISIT THE UNDERLYING PROCESSES.
WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND OUR ABILITY.
THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF MANAGEMENT AND IMPORTANT ALSO
IN TERMS OF UNDERSTANDING SOIL FUNCTIONING.
SO WHAT APPEARS WHEN COMPARING DIFFERENT PRACTICES.
THE DIFFERENT LEVERS I SHOWED YOU IS ACTUALLY — IT SEEMS TO
BE MUCH MORE EFFICIENT IN TERMS OF INCREASING SOIL ORGANIC
CARBON STOCKS TO A CERTAIN DEPTH, AT LEAST 30 CENTIMETERS.
IT IS MUCH MORE EFFICIENT TO INCREASE THE INPUTS OF BIOMASS
TO SOIL BY THE DIFFERENT PRACTICES I SHOW YOU RATHER THAN
TO TRY TO DECREASE THE OUTPUTS BY DECREASING EROSION AND
MINERALIZATION. SO THIS IS IMPORTANT IN TERMS OF
MANAGEMENT. SO COVER CROPS, AGRO FORESTRY,
ETCETERA, SHOULD BE REALLY PROMOTED.
ANOTHER FOCUS I WOULD LIKE TO MAKE ON INCREASING THESE INPUTS.
ONE OF THE EMERGING RESULTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE IN THE
LAST TEN YEARS OR SO IS THAT IT IS MUCH MORE EFFICIENT TO
INFILTRATE CARBON STOCKS TO, TRY TO DO IT BELOW GROUND THAN ABOVE
GROUND. WHAT DO I MEAN?
WHAT I PRESENTED HERE IS THE AMOUNT OF CARBON THAT IS HELD IN
THE ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS, A CORN PLANT, FOR EXAMPLE, BELOW-GROUND
BIOMASS, AND WHAT COMES OUT OF IT IN THE SOIL CARBON AFTER
SEVERAL YEARS. AND WE USE STABILIZER TO
QUANTIFY THAT AND IT APPEARS THAT THE YIELD IN SOIL CARBON
THAT IS, YOU KNOW, THE PROPORTION BETWEEN THIS AND
THIS, THESE AND THESE, IS MUCH HIGHER WHEN YOU DEAL WITH ROOT
DERIVED RESIDUES THAN WITH ABOVE-GROUND RESIDUES, SO
DEFINITELY — AND THIS CAN BE EXPLAINED BY HOW THIS ORGANIC
CARBON IS INCORPORATED IN THE SOIL THROUGH ROOT HAIRS, MICRO
RHIZOMES, THROUGH EXUDATES THAT GO THROUGH TINY PORES OF SOILS
WHERE THEY CAN BE PROTECTED FROM DECOMPOSITION.
PRACTICES WOULD AIM AT INCREASING GOOD CARBON INPUTS TO
SOIL AND THIS OPENS A WHOLE AREA OF DISCUSSION.
MAYBE WE’LL DISCUSS THAT LATER IN THIS EVENT.
NOW, SOIL CARBON, HOW MUCH FOR HOW LONG.
AGAIN, LET’S BE QUANTITATIVE. WHAT I REPRESENTED HERE IS YOU
HAVE, IN THE X-AXIS, TIME IN YEARS, AND THE Y-AXIS, YOU HAVE
SOIL CARBON STOCKS. LET’S CONSIDER YOU HAVE THE
MANAGEMENT IN CROP FIELD, MANAGEMENT A, YOU REIMPLEMENT
COVER CROPS, FOR EXAMPLE. IF YOU DO THAT FOR YEARS, AT
SOME SAGE IT’S GOING TO — THE — STAGE, IT’S GOING TO, THE
SOIL ORGANIC STOCKS WILL INCREASE AT SOME STAGE AND YOU
MEAN GET TO A PLATEAU. I WANT YOU TO NOTICE TWO THINGS.
SOIL IS LOW, IT TAKES TIME AND THIS IS QUESTIONS OF FARMERS’
PRACTICES, QUESTIONS OF POLICIES BEHIND AND STORAGE IS LIMITED.
WE WILL NOT BE ABLE TO ASK SOILS TO COMPENSATE FOR OUR WAY OF
LIFE FOREVER, EVEN IF WE IMPLEMENT THE BEST PRACTICES IN
TERMS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF CARBON STORAGE.
AT SOME STAGE, SOILS WILL HAVE — REACH A NEW EQUILIBRIUM.
AND ALSO, IF YOU STOP YOUR CUTOFF, YOU WILL GO BACK TO THE
PRE-EQUIPMENT, SO IT IS REVERSIBLE AND IF YOU HAD A
PRAIRIE AND YOU RETURN IT, YOU PLOW IT, THE LOSS OF CARBON IS
HUGE AND RAPID. SO PRIORITY, PRESERVE WHAT YOU
HAVE IN YOUR SOILS AND SECOND PRIORITY, BE AWARE THAT ‘TIS
SLOW, IT’S LIMITED AND REVERSIBLE.
AND THE AMOUNT OF CARBON THE SOIL MAY STORE DEPENDS ON THE
MANAGEMENT. HERE YOU IMPLEMENT A THIRD TYPE
OF PRACTICE TO OBTAIN LARGER SALTS AND ONE OF THE QUESTIONS
THAT’S REALLY PASSIONATE AS SCIENTISTS IN THIS FIELD IS
WHETHER THERE’S AN UPPER LIMIT AND THERE IS IDEAS THAT THERE
WOULD BE AN UPPER LIMIT, MAYBE NOT FOR SO THE TAL CARBON, BUT
AT LEAST FOR THE CARBON THAT CAN BE ANALYZED FOR DECADES BECAUSE
OF THE LIMITED CAPACITY OF SOIL MINERALS.
HERE FOR EXAMPLE, YOU HAVE A MINERAL PARTICLE THAT I OBSERVED
IN ELECTRON MICROSCOPY WITH AN ORGANIC LAYER HERE.
SO MAYBE THERE’S A LIMITED CAPACITY OF THE MINERALS TO
PROTECT ORGANIC MATTER FROM DECOMPOSITION AND ALLOW IT TO
PRESERVE TO EXIST IN SOILS FOR DECADES.
SO THIS IS A FRN TEAR IN RESEARCH.
WE WANT MORE CARBON, WE WANT SOME OF IT TO TURN OVER FAST, WE
WANT SOME OF IT TO TURN MUCH SLOWER IN ORDER TO BE RESILIENT
AND TO CONTRIBUTE TO MITIGATING CLIMATE TRENDS.
WHAT STABILIZING ORGANIC CARBON FOR LONG TIMES.
SEVERAL PROCESSES. I WANT TO GIVE AWE A RAPID
UPDATE ON WHERE WE ARE ON THESE PROCESSES.
HERE WE ARE PRESENTING AN ORGANIC MOLECULE WITH MICROBES
ARE HAPPY BECAUSE THEY CAN EAT OR UNHAPPY BECAUSE THEY CANNOT
EAT. CHEMISTRY.
CHEMISTRY OF THE ORGANIC MATTER. STUDIES USING NATURAL MATERIALS
SHOW THAT THERE ARE ACTUALLY NO RESISTANCE, ORGANIC MOLECULES
PER SE, NO RECALCITRANT, EVERYTHING EATEN BY MOLECULES
EXCEPT MAYBE CHARCOAL, SO THIS IS A CHANGE OF PRIORITY IN THE
COMMUNITY. WE TEND TO THINK THE OPPOSITE.
ALSO THE AGE OF SOIL CARBON INCREASES WITH THE ABUNDANCE OF
REACTIVE SOIL MINERALS. LONG-TERM EXISTENCE, DEPENDING
ON SOIL TYPE, CAN BE EXPLAINED BY THE ABUNDANCE OF TEXTURES,
CLAY PARTICLES, AND A NEW TYPE OF PROCESS RECEIVED A LOT OF
ATTENTION, WE REALIZE THAT MICRO HABITAT CONDITIONS, REALLY WHERE
THE MICROBES LIVE — AND I HAVE TO SHOW YOU A PHOTOGRAPH.
A PHOTOGRAPH HERE, YOU HAVE TWO BACTERIA, ONE HERE AND ONE HERE.
YOU CAN SEE THIS ONE IS SURROUNDED BY CLAY PARTICLES.
THAT ONE USING THE LARGER SOIL PORE, AND THIS IS THE FOOD, SO
THIS IS THE HABITAT. WE’RE REALIZING THAT MICRO
HABITAT CONDITIONS CONTROL THE ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS AND
THEIR ABILITY TO ACCESS TO FOOD AND TO DECOMPOSE IT.
AND THIS WOULD EXPLAIN THE TYPE OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND ALSO
MANAGEMENT ON THE DECOMPOSITION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER.
AND THERE ARE ALSO A WIDE RANGE OF BIOREGULATIONS AND WE’LL HEAR
MORE TOMORROW ABOUT IT, ESPECIALLY WITH THE NETWORK, AND
NETWORKS OF INTERACTIONS ARE NOT ENOUGH TO EXPLAIN, BUT AGAIN,
THEY SHOULD EXPLAIN THE EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT.
SO A WIDE RANGE OF PROCESSES EXPLAINING THE PERSIST TANS OF
ORGANIC MATTER. ORGANIC MATTER PERSISTENCE IS
SOMEHOW AN ECOSYSTEM PROPERTY RATHER THAN THE SINGLE PROCESSES TAKING PLACE.
OKAY, SO WE WHERE TO DO IT NOW?
WHERE TO DO IT? I PROPOSE TO, AT THIS LANDSCAPE,
IS ON TO DO IT WHERE YOU NEED MOST ORGANIC MATTER.
IN THE ORGANIC POOL. WHY?
MAYBE YOU WILL BE ABLE TO STORE MORE, BUT ALSO BECAUSE YOU WILL
HAVE MORE BENEFITS. YOU CAN EXPECT MORE BENEFITS IN
TERMS OF SOIL PROPERTIES. SENSITIVITY TO EROSION, FOR
EXAMPLE. PROVISION OF NUTRIENTS.
THE RULES SHOULD BE, IF YOU CAN, GO DEEP.
GO DEEP, WHY? BECAUSE CARBON IN DEEP SOIL
LAYERS ARE STORED FOR MUCH LONGER TIMES.
WHAT YOU HAVE HERE, AGAIN, THIS IS A VERY RECENT RESULT, IS THE
ABUNDANCE OF POOLS, IMAGINE ARTIFICIAL PROPORTIONS OF
ORGANIC MATTER THAT HAVE AGES, YOU CAN SEE HERE THREE YEARS,
TEN YEARS, 30, 20, 100, 300, 1,000 YEARS, 3,000 YEARS, AND
YOU CAN SEE THAT THE PROPORTION OF ORGANIC MATTER RESIDING FOR
SHORTER TIME IS MUCH LARGER IN THE SOIL SURFACE LAYERS THAN AT
DEPTH WHERE MOST ORGANIC MATTER PERSISTS FOR CENTURIES,
MILLENNIA. SO IF POSSIBLE, GO DEEP.
AND AT THE SCALE OF THE PLANET, I WOULD SAY — AND THERE WAS A
VERY INTERESTING CONFERENCE ON THAT, THAT THE PRIORITIES ARE
NOT THE SAME IN THE DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE WORLD.
IN HIGH LATITUDES AND REGIONS WHERE YOU HAVE PATE LANDS, THE
PRIORITIES TO PROTECT THESE HUGE CARBON STOCKS, SO EVERYTHING IS
TUNED TOWARD CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION.
PRESERVE THEM FROM CLIMATE CHANGE, FROM EXCESSIVE DRAINAGE,
SO THIS CAUSES ECONOMIC PROBLEMS.
THERE ARE TRADEOFFS TO FIGHT, NOT AN EASY THING, BUT THE
PRIORITIES IS TO PRESERVE THE CARBON IN PEAT LANDS WHILE IN
DRY LANDS, THE PRIORITY IS TO INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON
STOCKS. SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS IN
THESE AREAS OF THE WORLD ARE VERY SMALL BECAUSE OF CLIMATE,
BECAUSE OF MANAGEMENT, DIFFERENT REASONS.
AND THE PRIORITY TO INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBONS, SO
DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE WORLD, DIFFERENT PRIORITIES.
NOW, WE’VE SEEN A PROPOSED AVENUE FOR WAYSES TO DO IT.
WHAT I WOULD LIKE TO DISCUSS WITH YOU, AND I THINK THE
QUESTION WOULD COME, YOU WOULD BE ABLE TO ASK ME QUESTIONS AND
SAY, OKAY, IS IT POSSIBLE NOW, IS IT POSSIBLE LATER?
WELL, NO, NO, SHOULD NOT RESTRAIN US FROM TRYING.
BUT NO, IT’S NOT POSSIBLE EVERYWHERE.
THERE ARE DIFFERENT BARRIERS, BIOPHYSICAL BARRIERS,
SOCIOECONOMIC, POLITICAL BARRIERS.
BIOPHYSICAL BARRIERS, SO GROW PLANTS AND WE HAVE DISCUSSED
THAT THIS MORNING, YOU NEED YOU IN TRI ENTS, YOU NEED NITROGEN,
PHOSPHORUS FOR PLANT PRODUCTION, BUT ALSO, AND THIS IS A RESEARCH
RESULT, TO TURN A LITER INTO SOIL CARBON, YOU ALSO NEED YOU
IN TRI ENT MUCH. YOU NEED A CERTAIN PROPORTION OF
CARBON, NITROGEN, AND FOREFORERUSS.
AND NITROGEN MIGHT BE LINLSED. THERE HAS BEEN LIMITS RECENTLY
OF THE AMOUNT OF NITROGEN THAT WOULD BE NEEDED IF WE — THE
IDEA WAS LET’S ASSUME THAT WE CAN INCREASE THE WORLD’S SOIL
CARBON STOCKS BY THE AMOUNT NEEDED TO COMPENSATE THE ANNUAL
INCREASE OF CO2 IN THE ATMOSPHERE.
3.5 3.5,000 POUNDS OF CARBON.
THEN WHAT YOU NEED IS TEN TIMES LESS OF NITROGEN.
THAT’S A HUGE AMOUNT, HUGE AMOUNT, AND SO THE ANSWER WOULD
BE — IN THEORY, CAN BE FERTILIZERS, BUT THIS RAISES
HUGE PROBLEMS IN TERMS OF ALSO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS WHEN
YOU GET TO NITROGEN FERTILIZER EMISSION AND OF THE
SUSTAINABILITY AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ALL
CARBON SYSTEMS AND THE DEPENDENCY OF FARMERS TOWARDS
EXTERNAL NITROGEN SOURCES. THERE ARE ALSO WAY TO DO.
WELL, AGAIN, IT’S VERY DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF THE WORLD.
RATTAN LAL WAS SAYING THIS MORNING IN SOME AREAS OF THE
WORLD, WHAT IS LIMITING PRODUCTION IS NUTRIENTS AND YOU
MIGHT HAVE TO BRING IN NUTRIENTS BECAUSE THERE’S NOT ENOUGH
RESOURCES ON SITE, BUT IN OTHER AREAS OF THE WORLD, AND I LIVE
IN SUCH AN AREA, NORTHERN EUROPE, TEMPERATE EUROPE AND
PROBABLY THE CASE ALSO HERE, OUR SYSTEMS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH
NITROGEN SOURCES AND THESE IN EFFECT COULD BE USED TO ENHANCE
ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS BY IMPLEMENTING COVER CROPS.
IN OUR COUNTRY IN EUROPE, THE FIRST REASON FOR IMPLEMENTING
CARBON CROPS IS THAT THE COVER CROPS ASSIMILATES THE EXCESS
NITROGEN, THE EXCESS NITRATES IN THE SOIL, SO IT’S A WAY TO
PROTECT THE QUALITY OF THE WATER AND THIS NITROGEN THEN GOES BACK
INTO THE SOIL LATER ON WHEN THE COVER CROP IS DESTROYED.
OTHER WAYS TO DO IT IS TO FAVOR BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION,
LEGUME PLANTS AND ALSO TO PROMOTE LIFE STOCK AND URBAN
WASTE RECYCLING AND ALSO WE HEARD THIS MORNING, I THINK
IT’S FAIRLY DIFFERENT IN YOUR COUNTRY MAYBE THAN IN MY MIND.
I LIVE IN AN AREA OF THE WORD WHERE THE DENSITY OF POPULATION
THE HIGH, WHERE WE HAVE LIMITED SPACE AND WE HAVE BIG CITIES.
AND WE ARE WORKING NOW IN OUR DEPARTMENT, FOR EXAMPLE, WE ARE
WORKING ON SHORT CYCLES OF NUTRIENTS AND CARBON BETWEEN THE
CITIES AND BETWEEN THE SURROUNDING AGRICULTURAL, THE P ANPARA-URBAN AGRICULTURE.
ALL THE FOOD GOES INTO THE CITY OF PARIS IN OUR CASE AND THE
WASTE COMING FROM THAT AS COMPOST COULD BE THEN ADDED BACK
TO THE SOIL. SO WE’RE WORKING TO DEVELOP SO
MUCH CIRCUITS OF CARBON, MOISTURE, FOREFORERUSS,
POTASSIUM, ETCETERA. SO HUGE DEMAND, BUT THEN THE
NEED FOR NUTRIENTS SHOWS THAT INCREASING SOIL ORGANIC CARBON
STOCKS CAN BE LIMITED BY THIS AND THE REST HAS TO BE
ESPECIALLY DIFFERENTIATED. NOT ALL AREAS OF THE WORLD ARE
EQUAL. NOT ALL AREAS OF THE WORLD HAVE
THE SAME POTENTIAL CAPACITIES AND ACCESS TO NITROGEN AND
PHOSPHORUS. TO GROW BIOMASS, YOU ALSO NEED
WATER AND THIS MIGHT BE LIMITED IN SOME AREAS OF THE WORLD.
BIOMASS, OF COURSE, AND YOU NEED SOILS.
AGAIN, IF YOU HAVE NO SOILS, YOU CANNOT STORE ANY CARBON.
THAT’S OBVIOUS, BUT I THINK IT’S IMPORTANT TO REMIND US, AND YOU
CAN LOSE SOILS BY EROSION, SO HERE WE HAVE A SYNERGY BETWEEN
PROTECTING SOILS FROM EROSION BY INCREASING SOIL CARBON AND WE
NEED TO PROTECT SOILS FROM EROSION TO BE ABLE TO STORE
CARBON IN THEM. AND AGAIN, MAYBE THIS IS BECAUSE
I LIVE IN A DENSELY POPULATED AREA, BUT SOILS ARE INCREASINGLY
CONSUMED IN EUROPE. I HAVE NO IDEA ABOUT THE NUMBERS
IN THE U.S., BUT IN FRANCE AND EUROPE, IT IS REALLY HUGE.
THE LAND THAT WE CONSUME FOR URBANIZATION, AND ALL THIS LAND,
WELL, IT’S NOT — DOES NOT — IT’S NOT THE UNIVERSE ANYMORE,
THERE’S NOT CARBON STORED MIRACLE IT DOES NOT RENDER, DOES
NOT PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES ANYMORE.
WE HAVE TO SAVE MORE LAND IN TERMS OF SURFACE AREA.
WE HAVE TO BE CAREFUL ABOUT THAT.
WE HAVE TO IMPLEMENT PROGRAMS TO TRY TO PROTECT THE LAND FROM
CONTINUED URBANIZATION. SO THIS IS FOR THE BIOPHYSICAL
BARRIERS. NOW, THERE ARE ALL THE BARRIERS,
AGRO MOMICAL, ECONOMICAL,SS.
MOST OF THE FOOD IN THE WORLD COMES FROM FAMILY FARMING.
IT IS LESS EASY FOR THEM TO TAKE BREAKS.
AND THEY MIGHT — SO ADOPTION BY FARMERS IS REALLY DEPENDING ON
THE ECONOMIC PROFITABILITY, THE BENEFITS THEY MIGHT HAVE, AND
THERE IS AWARENESS NEEDED, BUT ALSO TOOLS TO SHOW THEM THAT IT
CAN BE PROFITABLE, IT CAN BE A LACK OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL,
THERE CAN BE A LACK OF RESOURCES.
WE HAVE TO ALSO — THIS MORNING, THEY SAID THAT IN DIFFERENT
AREAS OF THE WORLD, DUNG IS USED FOR HEATING AND COOKING, FOR
HOMEWORK ACTIVITIES, AND THE CROPS ARE FODDER FOR THE
ANIMALS, SO TO PUT THE RESIDUE BACK INTO THE SOIL OR FEED THE
ANIMALS, THAT’S NOT AN EASY TRADEOFF.
THERE’S A NEED — THERE MIGHT BE A NEED OF CREDIT, ABILITY TO
INVEST AND LAND SECURITY ALSO. YOU WILL NOT INVEST IN YOUR LAND
IN, YOUR SOIL IF YOU HAVE — IF YOU DON’T KNOW HOW LONG ARE YOU
GOING TO CROP THIS PARTICULAR PLOT.
AND SO THERE’S A NEED FOR EXTENSION SERVICES SUPPORT AND
INCENTIVES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF.
WE HAVE ALSO BEEN DISCUSSING THAT THIS MORNING.
NOW, IS THERE ANY DANGER WITH STORING MORE CARBON IN SOIL?
WELL, TO BE HONEST, IT’S ESSENTIALLY A WIN-WIN SITUATION,
BUT THERE ARE CASES WHERE, YES, THERE ARE DANGERS.
THERE ARE DANGERS. WHY?
THERE’S A DARK SIDE OF ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS AND I REALLY THINK
IT’S IMPORTANT TO BE AWARE OF THE DARK SIDE IN ORDER TO FIGHT
AGAINST IT. IN ORDER TO FIND THE GOOD WAYS
TO PROCEED. I’M AGAIN SHOWING YOU STILL THE
SAME GRAPH. I SHOWED YOU THAT IT COULD BE
THE DECOMPOSITION OF ORGANIC MATTER PROVIDED — COULD RELEASE
OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES, COULD RELEASE AMMONIUM, TURNS INTO
NITRATES, SO MORE ORGANIC MATTER CAN MEAN — AND I DEPENDS ON THE
CLIMATE CONDITIONS, DEPENDS ON THE WATER SITUATION OF THE SOIL,
FOR EXAMPLE, CAN RELEASE MORE — CAN RESULT IN MORE GREENHOUSE
GAS EMISSIONS AND REDUCED WATER QUALITY, BUT THIS IS ESSENTIALLY
AFFECTED BY THE PRACTICES, BY THE MANAGEMENT THAT IS
IMPLEMENTED AND ALSO MORE BIOMASS CAN BE OBTAINED BY
ADDING MORE MINERAL FERTILIZERS, ADDING POUR PESTICIDES,
CONSUMING MORE WATER AND THESE ARE DEFINITELY NEGATIVE ASPECTS.
IT’S ESSENTIALLY CONTROLLED BY MANAGEMENT OPTIONS AND MOMENT
OPTIONS HAVE TB — MANAGEMENT OPTIONS HAVE TO BE TAKEN IN
ORDER TO AVOID THE DARK SIDE OF ORGANIC MAR STORAGE.
IT’S NOT ESSENTIAL USE OF THE ORGANIC MATTER, IT MORE DUE TO
THE WAY YOU DO THE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS YOU MAY TAKE TO INCREASE
THE SOIL ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT. YOU MIGHT HAVE DETRIMENTAL WAYS
TO DO IT. WELL, WE’RE USED TO THAT IN MANY
AREAS OF EVERYDAY LIFE. IT’S POSSIBLE TO HAVE NEGATIVE
SOCIAL IMPACTS. AGAIN, IN THEORY, YES.
I HOPE IT WILL NOT HAPPEN, BUT IN THEORY, IT’S POSSIBLE.
YOU CAN TURN AGRICULTURAL LAND INTO CARBON FARMING JUST FOR THE
BIOMASS, FOR STORING CARBON TO GET CARBON CREDIT AND THAT WOULD
PUT PRESSURE ON LAND TENURE AND FAMILY FARMING.
WHAT IT MEANS IS THAT THE CHANGES IN AGRICULTURE HAS TO BE
PUT UNDER AN UMBRELLA. AN UMBRELLA LIKE AGRO ECOLOGY IN
TERMS OF IMPACT TO THE ENVIRONMENT AND HAVE TO BE MIXED
WITH AGRICULTURAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL,
ECONOMICAL AND POLITICAL ANALYSES.
THESE ARE ABSOLUTELY NEEDED. WE NEED A FRAMEWORK, WE NEED A
FRAMEWORK TO BE SURE THAT FOR DIFFERENT PROTECTIONS, WE DO NOT DO HARM.
NOW, I THINK I SHOWED THE LANDSCAPE, SO HOW TO GO FORWARD.
I HAVE TO SAY THAT THE SITUATION HAS REALLY CHANGED OVER THE LAST
YEARS. THERE’S A SERIES OF INITIATIVES
THAT HAVE SCLANGD THE LANDSCAPE AND THAT MEANS THAT SOIL IS NOW
BECOMING APPARENT IN PUBLIC POLICIES, AT LEAST IN THE
DECISION MAKERS LANGUAGE. ONE OF THE IMPORTANT ONES IS THE
SET-UP OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND SOIL IS
PRESENT IN FOUR OF THEM, MENTIONED IN FOUR OF THEM, AND
IT’S VERY CENTRAL AND THERE’S AN OBJECTIVE QUANTITY REGARDING
SOIL CARBON FOR THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE ON LAND.
THEY SET UP THE GLOBAL SOIL PARTNERSHIP.
ONE OF THE RESULTS WAS TO PRODUCE A NEW SOIL CARBON MAP
THAT IS BETTER THAN PREVIOUS ONES.
THERE WAS AN INTERNATIONAL YEAR WHICH WAS A FANTASTIC YEAR FOR
RAISING AWARENESS AMONG — AND I THINK IT WAS ESPECIALLY
SENSITIVE, AMONG POLICYMAKERS IN PARTICULAR, BUT AMONG THE
GENERAL PUBLIC, FARMERS, URBANISTS, LAND PLANNERS, THAT
MANY CASES THEY HEARD ABOUT SOILS FOR THE FIRST TIME.
THEY REALIZED THAT SOILS WERE NOT — WAS NOT — IT WAS A WHOLE
WORLD. THE IPBES, YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW
THIS LOGO. THIS IS INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF
BIODIVERSITY AND ECOSYSTEM SERVICES.
THE FIRST SERIES OF WORLD ASSESSMENTS ON LAND DEGRADATION
AND RESTORATION AND OF THE STATE OF ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
AND STATE OF RESOURCES IN DIFFERENT AREAS OF WORLD.
AGAIN, IT INCREASES OUR AWARENESS.
AND THERE’S THE INITIATIVE LAUNCHED BY THE FRENCH
GOVERNMENT AT THE COP21 IN PARIS IN 2015.
SO WHAT IS THIS INITIATIVE? IT IS A TAKE HOLDER INITIATIVE
THAT AIMS, AS YOU SEE, AS I HAD WRITTEN IT, TO INCREASE ORGANIC
MATTER AND PROMOTE SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH THE
APPLICATION OF APPROPRIATE FARMING AND FORESTRY PRACTICES
IN ORDER TO CONTRIBUTE TO FOOD SECURITY, CLIMATE CHANGE
MITIGATION, AND ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE.
THREE MAJOR OBJECTIVES.
AND WHERE DOES IT COME FROM, THIS TITLE?
IT’S TO REFER — I SHOWED YOU A GRAPH WITH THE GLOBAL CARBON
CYCLE AND IT SHOWED THAT THE ANNUAL INCREASE OF , .4% OF THE WORLD SOIL CARBON
STOCKS, WOULD COMPENSATE FOR THE ANNUAL CARBON FOSSIL FUEL
EMISSIONS OF OUR PLANET. THIS IS TO GIVE YOU AN ORDER OF
MAGNITUDE AND IT HAS BECOME THE TITLE OF THE INITIATIVE.
I OFTEN SAY WHEN I SPEAK ABOUT THIS INITIATIVE, BECAUSE I’M A
MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY OF THIS
INITIATIVE, THAT IT IS PROBABLY THE BEST THING OF THIS
INITIATIVE AND THE WORST. AND THE WORST, WHY?
WELL, THAT’S THE POWER OF NUMBERS.
THE SIMPLICITY OF NUMBERS AND ALSO PROPER MEALS, LESS THAN ONE
PERCENT, EASY. IT APPEARS VERY POSITIVE, EASY
TO MAKE, AND IT’S EXACTLY LIKE IT’S A POLITICAL TOOL AND
ACTUALLY IT WAS LAUNCHED BY A MINISTRY, NOT LAUNCHED BY
SCIENTISTS. IT’S THE EQUIVALENT IN A SENSE
TO THE 2-DEGREE TARGET. WE ALL KNOW ABOUT THE 2-DEGREE
TARGET AND TO EAT FIVE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES A DAY, I GUESS
YOU ALL KNOW ABOUT THAT AND WE ALL GUESS THAT SCIENTISTS
WORKING IN NUTRITION MIGHT THINK THAT MAYBE IT’S NOT EXACTLY WHAT
SHOULD BE DONE OR MAYBE IT’S NOT ENOUGH TO SAY THAT.
WELL, IT’S EXACTLY THE SAME FOR THE PROPER SOIL.
IT’S EFFICIENT, BUT IT HAS TO BE SEEN AS A TARGET TO MAINTAIN THE
EXISTING SOIL STOCKS AND POSSIBLE TO INCREASE THEM.
THERE’S A LOT OF DEBATE IN THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE AND THIS
IS GOOD, ABOUT WHETHER THIS IS ACHIEVABLE LOCAL — IT IS IN
SOME PLACES — AND WHETHER IT IS ACHIEVABLE GLOBALLY.
I DON’T KNOW YET. THERE’S A LOT OF DEBATE, BUT
EVEN THOUGH IT IS NOT ACHIEVABLE IN TERMS OF NUMBERS GLOBALLY,
EVEN THOUGH WE SUCCEED ONLY ONCE PER MILL INCREASE, THAT WOULD BE
SUCH A VICTORY ALSO. EVEN MAINTAINING THE PRESENT
SOIL CARBON STOCKS IS A CHALLENGE, SO WE HAVE TO GO
FORWARD. SO THE INITIATIVE TRIES TO
ENGAGE, ADVOCATES AND ENGAGES. IT ALSO TRIES TO HELP PROJECTS
THAT AIM TO INCREASE SOIL ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS BY
PROPOSING CRITERIA TO HAVE A FRAMEWORK, NOT TO GO IN ANY
DIRECTION WITH HARM OF EFFECTS, AND IT HAS PROPOSED RESEARCH PRIORITIES.
NOW, I’M GOING TO CONCLUDE, SO IS ORGANIC MATTER A SOLUTION TO
GLOBAL CHALLENGES? WELL, I WOULD LIKE TO SAY TWO
THINGS. YES, IT’S ONE OF THE SOLUTIONS,
SO IT HAS TO BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY BECAUSE IT BRINGS MANY BENEFITS
AND IT’S NOT ONLY TO THE GLOBAL CHALLENGES, BUT ALSO LOCAL ONES.
THE QUALITY OF THE CROPS, THE QUALITY OF THE FIELDS.
IT BRINGS MANY BENEFITS AND TO CONCLUDE, I WOULD LIKE ALSO TO
SAY THAT WE ALL THAT THE GOAL IS TO MAINTAIN OR INCREASE SOIL
ORGANIC CARBON STOCKS. IT IS ACHIEVABLE LOCALLY.
IT HAS TO BE SPECIALLY DIFFERENTIATED.
CONDITIONS ARE SO DIFFERENT ACROSS THE PLANET, IT HAS A
COST. WE SHOULD NOT AVOID DISCUSSING
THAT. IT IS NOT THE SILVER BULLET.
IT WILL NOT BE A SOLUTION TO ALL PROBLEMS.
SO IT’S NOT THE SOLUTION, IT’S ONE OF THE SOLUTIONS.
A WIDE PERSPECTIVE IS NEEDED. NOT ONLY CARBON, BUT SOIL
ORGANIC MATTER. NOT ONLY BIOPHYSICAL AS SPCTS,
BUT ALSO SOCIAL, ECONOMIC ASPECTS.
HAVE A WIDE PERSPECTIVE, EMBRACE THE WHOLE CHAIN WITH A VERY
INTEK GREATED WAY W A HOLISTIC PERSPECTIVE.
IT NEEDS ACTORS AND ENGAGEMENT. ACTORS, THEY ARE THE FARMERS.
AND THERE’S A NEED OF A FRAMEWORK, SUSTAINABLE
MANAGEMENT, THE TYPE OF AGRICULTURE DO WE WANT, WHAT
TYPE OF AGRICULTURE DO WE WANT, HUMAN RIGHTS ALSO.
AND I THINK AS A SCIENTIST, I THINK IT IS VERY EXCITING
BECAUSE SUCH INITIATIVES QUESTIONS ABOUT HOW TO MAINTAIN,
HOW TO PUT FORWARD POLITICAL EFFICACY AND SCIENTIFIC RIGOR.
AS A SCIENTIST, I FIND THIS VERY EXCITING AND I WOULD LIKE TO
THANK YOU FOR YOUR