Fresh Cow Feeding Strategies

Fresh Cow Feeding Strategies

September 15, 2019 2 By Ewald Bahringer


hi I am Mike Hutjens extension
specialist here at the University of Illinois and today’s discussion will feature fresh
cow feeding strategies our learning objectives include want to assess fresh
ground nutrient guidelines second to evaluate new research results with fresh
cow nutrition and thirdly compare management factors for fresh cow
groupings let’s take a quick look at nutrient profile this actually is the
NRC 2001 a guideline tabled right from their publication it also appears in the
new hoards dairyman feeding guide and today we will feature looking at the
fresh cow what’s interesting here is dry matter intake that becomes a hugely
important factor as this is very dynamic depending on how many days in milk we
have now you come down and you take a look here is the close-up dry cow and
early lactation or fresh group you’ll notice some interesting things not only
dry matter changes but you can see metabolize the protein goes up even
higher here we’re trying to meet the amino acid profile of these cows with
these lower dry matter intake so if this number goes up to say 40 pounds this
number would drop down notice about a 10% increase in energy density here and
then obviously modest decreases on NDF fiber and increases in sugars and
starches are NFC in the fresh Cod ration we would recommend using some of the
same ingredients in the high group TMR for example if you’re feeding haylage in
the high group TMR we’d recommend to have some haylage in the fresh cow
ration as well I want to make sure we have functional fibre there and that
could come from haylage already that’s in the ration I want three or four
pounds of inch particle length or more or more at that level or if you don’t
have it adding two or three pounds or four pounds of bale hay or one or two
pounds of processed straw that’s shorter than one inch in length there are number
of fresh cow additives that you could look at I’d recommend a yeast product
rumensin chromium buffers and organic trace minerals you may want to also make
sure you have adequate levels of vitamin e in there for immune function when
moving cows I’d like to step up the nutrients we just saw that in the
previous PowerPoint and one thing can also watch is look at room and fill kind
of look at the left side of the cow to see if cows are really filling up and
that could be another benchmark to look at here is some new research that you
should be aware of well first one is going to be high
Kelsea Mia are low blood calcium work primarily from Gary Ansel at the
University of Illinois and what we have here is basically the cow calves in
yellow red is kind of the cut point some people have moved it up to eight point
two one eight point four milligrams per deciliter here’s a cow of milk fever
notice she gets down below five this cow is down and the green cow is a cow’s
that do not develop mouth fever but you can see they are below the cut point
that’s hypocalcemic cows and about a third of the cows that are older cows
and heard will be exposed or suffered with his lower calcium levels what
affects is as have Wisconsin researchers say that low blood calcium certainly
have effects on the reproductive tract in ketosis and the second bullet item
says immune function really a big factor in terms of the ability to combat
diseases and back in bacterial challenges in this fresh cow we have two
tools to use an ionic product of course is used in the close up cow you can look
at that at a different PowerPoint the one we want to mention today is calcium
supplementation using a bolus or pace or drench we want to add 50 to 60 grams of
available calcium to do this cow sources could include calcium chloride calcium
sulfate and calcium propionate here we would be adding this bolus or paste
products at calving and then 12 to 24 hours later if needed meaning the cow
has not come out of her her low blood calcium level let’s look another
research study from Michigan State by Adam Locke looking adding fatty free
fatty acids to a fresh cow ration here is his design and you’ll see the data in
a minute fresh cows from the first 21 days
received 1.5 percent of their ration dry matter it with various levels of
palmitic and a lake fatty acids cows in a day 22 removed to a ration with no
supplemental fatty acids and determine if there was a carryover effect for the
next 40 days and I’ll give you a clue you won’t see this data but yes there is
which makes sense once you put these cows to peak generally if we got the
nutrients there we will hold it here’s the research results you can look at
very quickly over here is you can see the control hypo medic asset 80% in 70
and 60 you can see the reciprocal Leia Casas that of course is a one carbon
double bond fatty acid and the other ones would be other fatty acids
be in that product they’re using notice the milk production responses pretty
dramatic significantly improvement here and you can see while there is no
differences here there’s a trend continue here up to at about at least
four pounds more milk a dry matter intake really had had a similar effect
but not statistically significant an increase so the girls we’re eating more
groceries here butter fat you can see we end up getting a nice increase on butter
fat about about six tenths of a pound and of course no negative effects or
effects on natha’s which are indications a body weight loss certainly below the
Thresh no effects on insulin so but the
metabolism the cows are not grossly affected but you can see a nice increase
in milk production when we add these fatty acids here and again you can see
the response varied and you can determine which level you’d want to take
a look at next look at some work here at the University of Illinois by Juan lures
group looking at feeding both pre and post calving rumen to protect them
assigning the results were first and you can see the level typically around ten
grams and as a umbral here a big increase in energy corrected milk really
huge in this study here you can see dry matters came up with it perhaps not as
much dry matter increase as milk froth per response but that certainly helps us
out and then dr. lor did some genomic testing here on gene turn-on and you can
see an increase in liver function index meaning a healthier liver increase in
neutrophil function helps the immune system and reduction oxidative stress
and inflammation which of course it also related to immune drag or requirements
on that cow finally let’s end up at the University of Wisconsin Wisconsin
Cornell looking at some of their work here on ketosis what we’re really
looking at here course is this big negative energy balance here in the
first two weeks after calving and this is some work from Penn State now what
happens when you have high levels of BH ba which associated with negative energy
balance you can see about a third of the cows will experiences even first calf
heifers it will impact milk yield and reproductive performance that’s
important that’s the cut point that being used by most labs one point two
millimoles per liter here using one of the test strip systems here
or you can monitor on DHIA testing fresh cows through some labs in Canada and
Wisconsin for example usually want to check the cows the first 20 days after
calving and if they are showing elevated levels we are probably going to drench
them in propylene glycol until they respond here’s some new data Kawa
sconces is testing hers now and they have monitors on 3,400 hers and over
200,000 cows for the first 20 days and they saw in first lactation cows they
had ketosis using that cut point 22 percent chances cow will have it in the
next lactation older cows almost 50% so certainly there is some memory if you
wish when cows have this this disorder what does it have in terms of conception
rate you can see that a bigger in fact in conception rate on first lactation
cows or heifers calling rates monitor that but they’re pretty similar
as well and the cost you can see varies depending on which a lactation of a Rin
but significant costs to each of these cases
finally let’s finish up with Cornell University some work done looking at
weight loss on lame cows what we’re looking at here is a fat pad that is
indicated over here as you could look at that you can see this would be the fat
pad here and what that does it provides a cushion to the foot and that is made
up of various types of monounsaturated fatty acids and well that’s important
because it gives some concussion now here’s the measurements they made they
they will look at what loss of the DCT which is stands for digital cushion
thickness it was 15% alors in lame cows at bottom dollar at lowest level of a
120 days in milk so certainly mirrors probably the body condition cord changes
and therefore we would recommend if possible trying to minimize body
condition score drops to less than a half a body condition score after
calving this really impacts dry matter intake and factors in the environment
that these cows are found in so our take-home messages for today’s program
we need a fresh cow approach in feeding programs be aware of some of the early
signs such as ketosis little blood calcium and as this slide says a little
problem can become a very big problem several days several weeks or for that
total lactation tree up timely and appropriately and we want to reduce the
number of cows that leave the hurt early lactation because
that’s going to impact profitability of the count thanks have a great day